Healthy Living, Nutrition

Red meat and cancer

You may have noticed that there’s been a fair bit in the news lately about how eating lots of red and processed meat causes cancer. This latest media frenzy was caused after the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) released a report in October stating that processed meat is a ‘definite’ cause of cancer, and red meat a ‘probable’ cause.

What are red and processed meats?
Red meat refers to all mammalian muscle meat, including, beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton, horse, and goat. Note that this list includes pork, and minced meat would also come under this classification.
Processed meats include any meat that has been salted, cured, smoked or other processes used to enhance flavour or preserve. For example; bacon, salami, sausages, ham and canned meats.

What did the IARC report investigate?
Actually, this report didn’t investigate anything new, it was an evaluation of existing evidence and research. They evaluated over 800 studies that involved the relationship between intake of red and processed meats and cancer. According to this evidence, they then worked on grouping foods into certain classifications.
(An important thing to note is that the categories in the infogram below represent how confident the IARC are that something causes cancer, not how much cancer it causes).


Basically, what this chart is telling us, is that the IARC found sufficient evidence to conclude that high intakes of processed meats definitely cause cancer. The evidence for red meats was not as strong or clear, so is classified as a ‘probable’ cause of cancer.
Most of the evidence was linked to bowel (colorectal) cancer, and stems from a meta-analysis of 10 studies published in 2011. A key finding from this paper was that processed meat was more strongly linked to bowel cancer than red meat. They concluded that:
Every 50g/day of processed meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer by 18%.
Every 100g/day of red meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer by 17%.

However, this doesn’t mean that eating red or processed meats increases your risk of bowel cancer by 17/18%, as this is a measure of relative risk. In other words, someone who eats 50g of processed meat every day has a 1.18 times increased risk of developing bowel cancer when compared to someone who doesn’t eat processed meat. To put this into perspective, compare it with smoking (the most important avoidable cause of cancer in the world). Men who smoke 15-24 cigarettes a day have a 26 times higher risk of developing lung cancer than non-smokers.

So should I still eat red meat?
Red meat is fine in moderation, and is a valuable source nutrients including protein, iron and zinc. But, what exactly is moderation? This is much harder to quantify.
In general, the Department of Health recommends that people who eat more than 90g (cooked weight) of red meat per day should cut down to 70g or less. Try to keep processed meats such as sausages and salami as ‘occasional’ foods rather than things you eat every day. You could also try having alternative sources of protein such as chicken, turkey, fish, lentils and pulses (kidney beans, chickpeas etc.)

In conclusion, having a diet that is high in red meat is not good for you, but the occasional bacon sandwich is still fine. And importantly, the risks are much lower than other things associated with cancer risk, such as smoking.

More info:
IARC Press release

Cancer Research, UK: Processed meat and cancer
NHS Choices: Red meat and bowel cancer
Cancer Research, UK: Smoking and lung cancer

Healthy Living

A Dietitian’s Kitchen – November

20141117_170146I’ve always enjoyed fish, and I make an effort to ensure we get at least two portions per week. Fish is a good source of protein, lower in saturated fat than red meat and oily fish also contains those all-important omega-3s for heart health. Fish is also a good source of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), calcium (obtained from the fish bones) and magnesium. However, I find I’m often opting for the same types. This month I’m making an extra special effort to buy the more unusual types of fish that I either haven’t had before or haven’t had in a while.
Variety in the diet is something I emphasise to my clients and live by myself; as eating lots of different foods means that we get the different nutrients they all contain. Pictured are a couple of sardines we made into a tasty tomato pasta dish. Sardines are a great choice because they’re cheap, sustainable and a good source of healthy fats. I’m not overly keen on fishy fish, but the chili in this recipe worked superbly 🙂 (By the way, I left the gutting to my other half!)

As we’re on the subject of fish…I’ve also tried sushi again this month. Coming from a small town in West Wales, sushi restaurants weren’t exactly easily accessed when I was younger, and when I went to university I just never tried it (could well be down to having a housemate who was allergic to fish!) Anyway, I tried sushi for the first time about a year ago and didn’t like it. Having tried it again last week, I’m afraid I’ve still got a way to go before I can actually enjoy a traditional Japanese meal! It’s something I’d like to enjoy though, so it’s not my final attempt.

20141115_195605I don’t know about you, but as the weather gets colder, cold fruit and vegetables all the time just don’t do it for me. I’m quite a lover of raw vegetables or salad for lunch through the summer…but winter hits and I want something warm. A lot of the time I’ll make a soup, but (here comes that variety thing again) I also want something different. I’ve been making ratatouille with different veggies and baking squash, aubergine and sweet potato too.
Aubergine is a particular favourite of mine because I really like the texture. Aubergine, AKA eggplant, is very low in calories and high in fibre. It also contains B-vitamins and anti-oxidants. Plus the gorgeous purple skin makes any plate look divine!

20141115_143711No…These aren’t chips..I’ve even started baking fruit! I find baked apple slices with a little cinnamon have that added appeal in these cold months!


November has also been a busy month for birthdays! I enjoy baking, so I figured that I’d try and put a dietitian slant on my cakes and bakes. That’s included a carrot cake (YUM!), some chickpea brownies and a chocolate sponge made with quinoa instead of flour. I enjoy experimenting with recipes and enjoy the reaction from my friends when I tell them what they’re made from even more!

See you next month!